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The ship is a semi-planing steel monohull with an aluminum superstructure. The friction stir welded aluminum deckhouse is very flat which, combined with an angular design, makes it difficult for radar systems to detect.
The design incorporates a large reconfigurable seaframe to allow rapidly interchangeable mission modules, a flight deck with integrated helicopter launch, recovery and handling system and the capability to launch and recover boats manned and unmanned from both the stern and side.
The flight deck is 1. The ship has two ways to launch and recover various mission packages: The mission module bay has a 3-axis crane for positioning modules or cargo.
A Rolling Airframe Missile launcher is mounted above the hangar for short-range defense against aircraft and cruise missiles, and.
The core crew will be 40 sailors, usually joined by a mission package crew and an aviation detachment for a total crew of about Automation allows a reduced crew, which greatly reduces operating costs, but workload can still be "grueling.
Freedom has relaxed stability so it can rapidly change course. The operational concept includes deployment of a two or three-ship squadron to operate in the littorals to counter anti-access forces and to support the operations of the U.
Navy and other friendly surface ships. The operational concept is in direct support of the U. Principal capabilities include shallow-water anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures and defense against attacking small boats.
LCS ships are to be networked to share tactical information with other units. Freedom will be initially based in San Diego with two crews which will alternate four-month tours of sea duty.
The Congressional Budget Office estimates that fuel will account for only "8 percent to 18 percent" of the total life-cycle costs for Freedom. Smith's initials are welded on the ship's keel.
The couple's Saint Christopher medal and wedding bands are embedded in the ship's mast. Cost overruns during Freedom ' s construction combined with projected future overruns led the government to issue a "Stop-work" in January Prior to delivery, the U.
INSURV found the ship to be "capable, well-built and inspection-ready" and recommended that the Chief of Naval Operations authorize delivery of the ship.
Because the trials were conducted in Lake Michigan , some ship systems, including aviation and combat systems, could not be demonstrated.
According to Navy officials, only 9 of these deficiencies were corrected prior to delivery. Navy officials report that transiting the ship away from Marinette, Wisconsin, prior to the winter freeze was a higher priority than timely correction of starred deficiencies.
The Navy intends to correct remaining deficiencies during planned post-delivery maintenance availabilities. One of the issues with the ship is that it is six percent overweight and therefore more likely to sink if damaged.
This seems to have been caused by design changes during construction. The Navy says that the ship will require special operating procedures until this is corrected.
Other issues include difficulty with the slow speed operations required for deep sea refueling, no ability to UNREP other supplies aboard other than by helicopter, and problems with side-door launches of remotely operated vehicles.
On 12 June , the Navy confirmed that CNO Roughead had ordered a study of an early deployment of Freedom , before the expected date of Anonymous sources inside Lockheed Martin reported that Roughead wanted to use the first LCS to patrol for pirates off the coast of Somalia.
In July , the Navy awarded three contracts to reduce the weight of the package elements down to or below metric tons total to meet mission package weight requirements.
Since both elements are mature and fielded the VDS on Royal Navy Type 23 frigates and MFTA on Arleigh Burke and Zumwalt -class destroyers , the systems cannot be overhauled and other weight reduction ideas need to be implemented like lightening sensors and using composites in the handling system.
The ASW elements were chosen as cost-effective COTS sensors, so weight reduction needs by between percent have been planned for since their selection for integration onto the LCS.
The Mine Counter-Measure MCM module is designed to provide minesweeping, remotely detecting and bypassing mines, as well as minehunting, detecting and then disabling.
It was envisioned to perform "influence" minehunting via acoustic and magnetic signatures rather than contact or mechanical minehunting.
The first increment of the MCM module included three systems: To destroy mines, the AMNS is lowered by the helicopter and guided by an operator on board to neutralize it.
Increment three will involve adding the Fleet-class unmanned surface vessel USV with the unmanned surface sweep system USSS , a cable towed behind the boat.
It will mimic the acoustic and magnetic signature of a ship to fool magnetic and influence mines into detonating; introduction is expected in The final increment will be the Knifefish unmanned underwater vehicle UUV to find and detect buried mines in If the Knifefish UUV can have its endurance increased, the vessel will take over the mission from both systems.
The Navy included an irregular warfare package in its budget request to Congress. The Independence -class LCS' features of high speed, a large flight deck to support UH-1Y Venom and AH-1W Super Cobra helicopters, and reconfigurable mission bay can support air and small-boat employment and delivery of ground and air forces; a small Marine ground unit can be carried within an embarked mission module.
In , the U. Coast Guard began advocating the LCS as a tailor-made platform for drug interdiction missions. Under pressure from Navy vessels retiring, the Coast Guard will suffer a surface vessel shortage for intercepting smuggling ships in the Caribbean area, forcing the Navy to examine other platforms for drug interdiction.
The Coast Guard noted that the LCS has previously performed this task, and pointed towards its high speed and embarked helicopters to run down smuggling fast boats; the Navy plans to base 10 Freedom -class ships at Naval Station Mayport, Florida which could be tasked to conduct interdiction missions.
During the late s, the U. Navy realized its Cold War -era cruisers and destroyers would be vulnerable in shallow coastal waters, where the next naval battlespace was anticipated.
Designed for open-ocean warfare, they faced dangers from high-speed boats, missile-firing fast-attack craft, small submarines, sea mines, and land and air-launched anti-ship missiles.
The Navy's official solution was the DD , a large coastal warship that could absorb hits. Being small, light and numerous, the Streetfighter was envisioned as a "single-serving" ship to be abandoned once hit, made possible by its low cost.
The concept of a manned expendable warship was contentious and the idea was not picked up. When Donald Rumsfeld was made Secretary of Defense in early , he promised transformational approaches and doing jobs with fewer people.
In October , Cebrowski was assigned to head the Pentagon's new Office of Force Transformation, shortly after which Admiral Vernon Clark cancelled the DD and replaced it with a "family" of ships, including the littoral combat ship, being motivated to produce ships cheaper and faster to increase fleet size.
Clark declared the LCS was his "most transformational effort" and number-one budget priority in Proponents typically pointed to its speed, asymmetric littoral threats, and impact on the American shipbuilding industry.
The LCS suffered from requirements creep, adding more missions and equipment, potentially rendering it too complex and expensive to use. When it was decided the ship would not be expendable, the original concept of a small, cheap, simple coastal warship became bigger, more expensive, and more complicated; with a smaller crew due to automation.
The task force assigned six different missions which had been previously performed by individual ships: The Navy was only willing to build one type of ship, the task force, realized it was virtually impossible for one vessel to fill all roles, advocated a large hull to cover the mission range through modularity, organic combat power, and unmanned systems.
When the first production contracts were awarded in , no mission module worked outside of a laboratory. Fast, cheap construction was emphasized, solving problems with technology.
Navy released the LCS requirement. After these are brought into service, and experience gathered on the design's usability and efficiency, the future design for the class would be chosen Flight I.
The ultimate decision was to fund both designs as two variants of the class. LCS-2 was launched 30 April In April , the Navy announced its revised procurement plan that three ships be funded in the FY budget; officials also hinted that the Navy may not down-select to one design for further orders, pointing out complementary features of the two designs.
The Congress asked the Navy to study improvement programs on existing ships in place of the LCS program. In May , Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems released a study that showed seven LCS can more efficiently perform anti-piracy patrols in the Western Indian Ocean than a fleet of 20 conventional ships for a quarter of the cost.
The Government Accountability Office GAO found that deploying the first two ships will delay the overall program because these two ships were not available for testing and development so changes may have to be made in the second pair of ships during construction instead of in advance.
Navy responded that "Early deployment brought LCS operational issues to the forefront much sooner than under the original schedule, some of which would not have been learnt until two years on.
Work explained that cost overruns were partly due to the shipbuilders bidding to American Bureau of Shipping commercial standards, the Navy changed this to Level I survivability standards for greater crew survivability, although the ships were not expected to operate after being hit.
Navy Secretary Ray Mabus pointed out that new vessels traditionally start off costing more to operate due to difficulties with ships being built and tested simultaneously; GAO reports of new warships since the s support this claim.
As more littoral combat ships are built and enter service, Mabus said operational costs will decline to acceptable limits.
On 2 December , it was reported that the GAO was critical of the LCS's ability to complete a navy requirement of 30 consecutive days underway without a critical failure of one or more essential subsystems.
Michael Gilmore, the Pentagon's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation states that the current LCS fleet have a "have a near-zero chance" of meeting this requirement.
Instead of declaring a winner out of the two competing designs, the U. Navy in November asked the Congress to allow for the order of ten of each design.
In December , the Government Accountability Office identified some problems with the designs including extremely long crew training time, unrealistic maintenance plans, and the lack of comprehensive risk assessment.
The Navy would be forced to award the contract to only one team if it failed to secure Congressional approval. A day before the offer's expiration, both Lockheed Martin and Austal USA received Navy contracts for an additional ten ships of their designs; two ships of each design being built each year between and In May , Robert Work said that the two designs may each be best suited to different theaters, the LCS-1 design being better suited for the enclosed waters of the Middle East, while the LCS-2 design for the Pacific Ocean's open waters.
In order to increase commonality, the Navy will force both types to use the same combat system electronics. The handoff from General Dynamics to Austal of management for the Independence class led to a month schedule slip as the company struggled with building the JHSV ships at the same facilities.
A report by Rear Admiral Samuel Perez, USN, found that the ships lacked the manpower and firepower to complete the missions required by regional combatant commanders.
The report found that the LCS is "ill-suited for combat operations against anything but" small, fast boats not armed with anti-ship missiles.
It also found that the excessive beam width of the trimaran Independence class ships may pose a "navigational challenge in narrow waterways and tight harbors".
As contract workers are required to be American, they must be flown out to any foreign ports visited by an LCS. In , Captain Kenneth Coleman, the U.
Navy's requirements officer for the program, identified the LCS as being especially vulnerable to tactical aircraft armed with standoff anti-ship missiles.
Copeman III is reported to be considering an upsized "Super" LCS,  with space to install needed firepower, because he noted that the 57mm main gun was more suitable to a patrol boat than a frigate.
Hunt said the ships are designed in accordance with the Navy's survivability standards, and that the LCS would be used during the initial phase in the theatre and sense the environment before hostilities occur.
The Navy has said the LCS was designed to pull out of combat upon sustaining damage. Hunt added that the anti-submarine warfare ASW mission package would play an important role in protecting aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, and the mine countermeasures MCMs mission package would also provide necessary port security and waterway patrol capability following combat operations.
The first two vessels from each maker were found to be overweight and not meeting performance requirements for endurance or sprinting over 40 knots.
Navy leaders contend that the LCS' shallow draft is well suited for Pacific operations due to the many shallow-water ports, typically difficult for larger warships to access.
The GAO report recommended the Navy consider buying fewer ships of the type if its limitations prevent effective use in the Pacific theater.
On 24 February , Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel directed the Navy to submit alternative proposals for a new surface combatant comparable to a frigate that can operate in all regions under conflict conditions.
In response to Pentagon direction to halt LCS purchases at 32 ships, the Navy is re-examining the vessels' role, such as whether they have enough protection and firepower to survive against advanced adversaries, and alternate proposals which included a modified LCS or a new platform.
The Navy requires the class' roles of counter-mine, anti-submarine, and surface warfare provided by modules. Proponents point out that the LCS was not designed to function like destroyers but for littoral tasks like high-speed patrols and counter-piracy missions, moving at 40 knots and within shallow water where other ships cannot.
Hagel was concerned by the LCS to make up one-sixth of the Navy's ship force. A new ship class would need built-in anti-submarine and surface warfare mission features, as opposed to swappable mission modules.
Greenert explained that the LCS meets or exceeds survivability and recoverability standards, was as survivable as a frigate, and was more survivable than mine countermeasures and patrol craft; susceptibility has to be improved upon, and he would consider modifications to increase survivability and flexibility.
Two ships of each design would be built on every year between and Work has said that the two different designs may each be best suited for a different theater, in that the LCS-1 design would be better suited for the enclosed waters of the Middle East, while the LCS-2 design would be better suited for the open waters of the Pacific Ocean.
However, in order to increase commonality between the two designs, the Navy will force both types to use the same electronics for their combat systems.
The handoff from General Dynamics to Austal of management for the Independence class lead to a 13 month schedule slip as the company struggled with building the JHSV ships at the same facilities.
In May , the GAO called for a pause in the ship constructions until issues with the sea frames and modules were resolved. A report by Rear Admiral Samuel Perez found that the ships lacked the manpower and firepower to complete the missions required by the regional commanders.
It also found that the excessive beam of the trimaran Independence class ships may pose a "navigational challenge in narrow waterways and tight harbors".
In addition these contract workers must by law be Americans, which will then need to be flown out to the foreign ports the LCS must return to for supplies and maintenance.
In , Navy Captain Kenneth Coleman, the requirements officer for the program, identified tactical aircraft as a system the LCS would be especially vulnerable to.
Copeman III is reported to be considering an upsized "Super" LCS,  that would have space to install needed firepower, because he noted that the 57mm main gun was more suitable to a patrol boat than a frigate.
The various modules all use the same Internet Protocol formats, and the ships are reportedly prone to Cyber-Attacks. Hunt said the ships are designed in accordance with the Navy's survivability standards, and that the LCS would be used during the initial phase in the theatre and sense the environment before hostilities occur.
The Navy has said the LCS was designed to pull out of combat upon sustaining damage. The deployment of USS Freedom is seen by the Navy as an opportunity to test the ship and its operational concepts real-world environments.
Congressman Hunter replied that all that the Freedom had done so far was dock in harbors that other ships couldn't demonstrating its shallow draft and do "donuts" move in fast circles in the water.
Hunt added that the anti-submarine warfare ASW mission package would play an important role in protecting aircraft carriers and amphibious ships.
The mine countermeasures MCMs mission package would also provide necessary port security and waterway patrol capability in a region following major combat operations.
Saudi Arabia and Israel have both expressed an interest in a modified version of the Freedom variant, the LCS-I,  but Defense News has reported that Israel has dropped out of this project in favor of a new frigate design to be built in Israel.
The Royal Malaysian Navy intends to purchase much smaller ships that they call littoral combat ships, but their use of the term has been disputed.
The Indonesian Navy was reportedly interested in either purchase or construction of littoral combat ships to protect Indonesia's wide ocean territory.
Early images indicate a trimaran design much like the Independence variant ships LCS Sign In Don't have an account?
Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 11 April Background, Issues, and Options for Congress.
Quick Swap Concept Dead. Navy's Littoral Combat Ship. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 23 June Background, Issues, and Options for Congress".
US House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 September A Navy Point of Contention. Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 30 April